Biology (BIOS)

Major Courses

BIOL A100 Biology Freshman Seminar, 1 cr.

This course provides new biology majors with an overview of learning, research, service, career expectations and opportunities.  Class meetings focus on curricular requirements, correlates of academic success, academic and biological ethics, career selection and preparation, and undergraduate research opportunities.  Social and service learning activities augment lectures and engage majors in the Biology community.

BIOL A101 BioInquiry, 3 crs.

BioInquiry is the first course in the core biology sequence, required by all first-year biology majors. This course aims to engage students in the process of scientific inquiry while providing a framework for academic success at Loyola. Students will gain proficiency in experimental design, quantitative reasoning, scientific communication, and collaboration skills. Contemporary research questions will span cellular and molecular biology, physiology, organismal biology, ecology, and evolution. Each section of this course explores a unique theme that will instill an awareness of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and its relationship to societal issues. Lab fee $50.

BIOL A106 Cells and Heredity, 3 crs.

This course emphasizes the principles and concepts of chemical, cellular, and genetic processes common to all life. Topics include the scientific method, basic chemical concepts, macromolecules, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure, membrane structure, energy and metabolism, meiosis, mitosis, Mendelian inheritance, and the Central Dogma.

Prerequisite: Eligibility to enroll in MATH A257 (completion of MATH A118 or ALEKS score of 76-100) or completion of MATH A257 
Corequisite: BIOL A107

BIOL A107 Cells and Heredity Lab, 1 cr.

Students investigate the scientific method, basic chemical concepts, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function, Mendelian inheritance, and the structure, function, and technological uses of DNA.  This laboratory course emphasizes student-designed experiments, data collection and analysis, oral and written presentation, and the use of the scientific literature.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisite: Eligibility to enroll in MATH A257
Corequisite: BIOL A106

BIOL A108 Biology of Organisms 3, crs.

This course compares the functional biology of microbes, plants, and animals focusing on morphology, physiology, reproduction, development and natural history.

Prerequisites: Grade of C- or higher in BIOL A106, BIOL A107 or permission from the Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences
Corequisite: BIOL A109

BIOL A109 Biology of Organisms Lab, 1 cr.

This course examines the diversity of life through field trips, demonstrations, dissections, and experimental activities. Form and function of microbes, plants, and animals are compared to demonstrate how organisms have adapted to their environments. Lab fee $100.

Prerequisite: Grade of C- or higher in BIOL A106, BIOL A107 or permission from the Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences
Corequisite: BIOL A108

BIOL A208 Ecology and Evolution, 3 crs.

This course introduces current concepts and principles of ecology and evolution. Students examine animal behavior, populations, communities, ecosystems, biogeography, natural selection, speciation, the history of life, human evolution, and other topics through lectures, readings, discussion, and a field trip.

Prerequisites: BIOL A106BIOL A109

BIOL A300 Microbiology, 3 crs.

This course examines the structure, function, metabolism, ecology, and pathogenesis of viruses, arachaea, bacteria and eukaryotic microbes.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses; two years of chemistry including Organic Chemistry
Corequisite: BIOL A301

BIOL A301 Microbiology Lab, 1 cr.

This laboratory meets three hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A300 and provides students with skills needed to isolate, identify and study the form and function of microorganisms.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses; two years of chemistry including Organic Chemistry
Corequisite: BIOL A300

BIOL A303 Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates, 3 crs.

This course uses lectures, readings, demonstrations, and discussions to compare the diversity, form and function of vertebrates.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A304

BIOL A304 Comparative Anatomy–Vertebrate Lab, 1 cr.

This laboratory meets four hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A303 and provides students with skills needed to dissect, analyze and compare anatomical adaptations in major groups of vertebrates.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A303

BIOL A305 Histology, 2 crs.

The study of the microscopic structure of tissues and organs of the mammalian body and the study of the fundamentals of hematology are the focus of this course. 

Prerequisites: Biology core courses                                           
Corequisite: BIOL A306

BIOL A306 Histology Lab, 2 crs.

Laboratory experience that meets four hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A305.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A305

BIOL A308 Developmental Biology, 3 crs.

Events and mechanisms of developmental genetics, gametogenesis, fertilization, morphogenesis, and organogenesis in selected vertebrates and invertebrates are examined. The laboratory includes experimental approaches to the study of development.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A309

BIOL A309 Developmental Biology Lab, 1 cr.

Laboratory experience that meets three hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A308.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A308

BIOL A312 Anatomy and Physiology, 4 crs.

This course focuses on the interrelationships of the structural components of the human body to their function at the cellular, tissue, organ, and organ system level. Particular emphasis is placed on study of mechanisms responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Designed for allied health and other pre-health professional students.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A313

BIOL A313 Anatomy and Physiology Lab, 2 crs.

This laboratory meets four hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A312 and provides students with skills needed to examine both normal and pathological form and function of the human body at the cellular, tissue, organ and organ system levels.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A312

BIOL A320 Entomology, 3 crs.

This course explores the diversity of insects, their structural adaptations, evolution, classification, life histories and habits, and their economic importance. An extensive insect collection is the focus of the experiential learning process with an emphasis on the natural history of the group. 

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A321

BIOL A321 Entomology Lab, 1 cr.

Laboratory experience that meets in conjunction with BIOL A320.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A320

BIOL A326 Molecular Genetics, 3 crs.

Fundamentals of molecular genetics such as transcription, DNA synthesis and repair, and RNA processing are discussed. Through review and discussion of scientific literature and laboratory experience, students learn the process of scientific investigation, recent findings and new technologies in the field of molecular genetics.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses                                           
Corequisite: BIOL A327

BIOL A327 Molecular Genetics Lab, 1 cr.

Laboratory experience that meets three hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A326.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A326

BIOL A328 Genetic Analysis, 3 crs.

This course addresses advanced topics in transmission genetics, cytogenetics, evolutionary genetics and mutagenesis. Emphasis is placed on development of quantitative skills and written and oral communication.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A330 Ecology 3, crs.

This course examines basic ecological principles and concepts including the nature of the ecosystem, energy flow, biogeochemical cycles, and the ecology of populations and communities.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A331

BIOL A331 Ecology Lab, 1 cr.

This laboratory meets four to five hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A330 and provides students with skills needed to quantify ecological interactions of plants and animals.  This course requires student participation in multiple fieldtrips.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A330

BIOL A334 Biology of Fishes, 3 crs.

This course examines phylogenetic relationships, functional morphology, physiology, sensory biology, reproduction, behavior, ecology, biogeography, and conservation of fishes.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A335

BIOL A335 Biology of Fishes Lab, 1 cr.

This laboratory meets three hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A334 and provides students with skills needed to understand phylogeny, form, function and natural history of fishes.  This course requires student participation in multiple fieldtrips.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A334

BIOL A336 Animal Behavior, 3 crs.

This course examines behavioral adaptations of animals and critically evaluates hypotheses to account for the evolution of these adaptations. Student activities emphasize field observation of animal behavior, experimental design, and scientific communication.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A338 Plant Ecology, 3 crs

An introduction to the quantitative study of plants and their environment.  Emphasis is placed on understanding the functional ecology of individual plants and vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite BIOL A339

BIOL A339 Plant Ecology Lab, 1 cr

This laboratory course accompanying BIOL A338 and exposes students to modern field and laboratory techniques in plant physiological ecology.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite BIOL A338

BIOL A345 Herpetology, 2 crs.

This course is an introduction to the study of morphology, adaptation, classification, distribution, and ecology of amphibians and reptiles.  Students participte in field work and identification of North American groups and field studies of local fauna. 

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A346

BIOL A346 Herpetology Lab, 2 crs.

Field and laboratory experience that meets six hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A345.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A345

BIOL A347 Parasitology, 3 crs.

This course emphasizes parasites of public health concern, and includes review of recent studies using current technologies. Major conceptual themes also include: Evolutionary relationships, virulence, origins of a parasitic life, life histories, manipulation of hosts, host immune responses, and consequences for host. 

Prerequisites: Biology core courses and BIOLA208

BIOL A355 Conservation Biology, 3 crs.

The study of the conservation of biodiversity based in the principles of ecology, evolution, and genetics. The primary goal of this course is to understand natural ecological systems in the context of a human dominated world to learn to best maintain biological diversity in concert with an exploding human population. This is accomplished through lecture, socratic discussion, and videos.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A356 Aquatic Microbiology, 3 crs.

An introduction to the study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes as well as viruses in the aquatic environment. The course emphasizes the functional role of microbes in aquatic habitats, the relationship of microbial biodiversity to environmental gradients and the interaction of aquatic microbes with human affairs.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A357

BIOL A357 Aquatic Microbiology Lab, 1 cr.

Field and laboratory experience that meets three hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A356. Students are exposed to modern field and laboratory techniques used with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes from aquatic habitats. Field trips emphasize local freshwater and estuarine environments.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A356

BIOL A360 Cell Biology, 3 crs.

An analysis of cell structure and function. Topics covered in the course include protein synthesis, the nucleus, cytoplasmic organelles and bioenergetics, endomembrane systems, vesicular transport, the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, cell cycle control, and cancer.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A361

BIOL A361 Cell Biology Lab, 1 cr.

Laboratory experience that meets three hours per week in conjunction with BIOL A360.  Lab fee $100.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses
Corequisite: BIOL A360

BIOL A365 Immunology, 3 crs.

This course explores the field of experimental cellular and molecular immunology. Topics include organization of the immune system, structure and function of antigen recognition molecules, immune cell interactions, and regulation of the immune system and immunity-related diseases.  Clinical immunology is not emphasized.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A370 Introduction to Marine Science, 4 crs.

This course is an introduction to physical, chemical, geological, and biological processes in the oceans and coastal environments and their interactions including interrelationships of man and the marine environment. Five-week summer course at LUMCON in Cocodrie, La.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A375 Introduction to Marine Zoology, 4 crs.

This course is a field and laboratory survey of marine animals, particularly those of the Louisiana Gulf Coast, including classification, morphology, physiology, and ecology. Five-week summer course at LUMCON in Cocodrie, La.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A400 Research Proposal, 1 cr.

Students work with a faculty research adviser to identify an original question in the biological sciences and develop and write a proposal/prospectus to investigate this question. This course is required of all biology honors students and students intending to complete a thesis in biological sciences.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A401 Independent Research, 1-4 crs.

Students work with a faculty research adviser to conduct theoretical, field, and/or laboratory research. Students may register for one to four credit hours per semester and may enroll in this course in more than one semester, but the cumulative total credit hours earned may not exceed four.

Prerequisites: Biology core courses

BIOL A402 Research Thesis, 1 cr.

Students work with a faculty research adviser to prepare a written thesis describing their original research and make an oral presentation at the undergraduate research symposium. This course is required of all biology honors students and students intending to complete a thesis in biological sciences.

Prerequisite: BIOL A400
Corequisite: BIOL A401

BIOL A444 Marine Vertebrate Zoology, 4 crs.

General study of the marine chordates with particular emphasis on the fishes, including classification, structure, function, and ecology. Five-week summer course at LUMCON in Cocodrie, La.

Prerequisite: BIOL A370 or BIOL A375

BIOL A446 Marine Ecology, 4 crs.

This course examines the relationships of marine and estuarine organisms to environmental factors: interactions among organisms, ecological processes of energy and materials flow, communities, and ecosystems of the Louisiana Coastal Zone. Five-week summer course at LUMCON in Cocodrie, La.

Prerequisite: BIOL A370 or BIOL A375

BIOL A448 Topics in Marine Science, 1-4 crs.

This course is an advanced lecture, laboratory, and field work on a selected topic in the marine sciences. One- to four-week summer course at LUMCON in Cocodrie, La.

Prerequisite: BIOL A370 or BIOL A375

BIOL A499 Independent Study, credits vary

Independent work done under professorial supervision. 

BIOL H295 Honors Seminar, 3 crs.

This course examines an in-depth topic in biology--content varies.

Prerequisite: University Honors Program or by permission of instructor

Loyola Core

BIOL T121 First-Year Seminar, 3 crs

Foundation Courses: First-Year Seminar

The gateway course to the Loyola Core is the First-Year Seminar (FYS). This issues-based, interdisciplinary seminar introduces students to college-level thinking and learning as well as Jesuit values at the core of a Loyola education. A full list of currently offered FYS courses can be found on the Loyola Online Records Access (LORA) system.

BIOL Y200 Essentials of Biology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

Essentials of Biology is an introductory biology course which studies life processes and living organisms. It considers principles of basic chemistry and the nature of cells, including how they obtain energy and how they divide. Genetics and evolution are focused on in order to understand how viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals have populated the earth. A section on human organ systems is an important component of this course, and the characteristics of ecosystems are studied as well.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129 

BIOL Y205 Topics in Biogeography, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course involves the study of distribution of life across our planet, past and present.  A tour of the world’s biomes is explored with emphasis on ecological, environmental, and economic issues, such as destruction of tropical rainforests, the effect of climate change on the arctic polar bears, and the loss of the American chestnut tree.  Special topics include animal migration, invasive species, extinction, climate change, the Dust Bowl, the story of the American bison, and the disappearing coral reefs.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y230 Human Ecology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course is a study of the ‘human condition’ with a focus on ecology and evolutionary biology. The course explores the thesis that humans have caused an ecological crisis that is manifested in the principal topics of climate change, biodiversity loss, habitat destruction, and overpopulation.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y236 Evolution, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

Evolution is the unifying concept in biology and this course uses lectures, readings, discussions, and exercises to explore the processes, mechanisms, and patterns of biological evolution. Human evolution and the impact of humans on biodiversity and ecosystems are examined in detail.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y237  Marine Biology & Conservation, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course examines diversity, physiology, ecology, and conservation of microbes, plants, and animals that live in the marine environment. Emphasis is placed on how marine organisms have adapted to living in their environment and how humans depend upon and affect marine ecosystems.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y240 Plant Natural History, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course explores the world of microscopic and macroscopic plants, with special emphasis on their anatomy, reproduction, nutrition, biological diversity, and cultural and economic importance.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y244 Mississippi River Delta Ecology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course is a study of the ecology of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. Emphasis is placed on the importance of coastal erosion, accompanied by study of the physical and biological aspects of the Mississippi River, its delta, estuaries, and their habitats and flora and fauna, and relevant environmental and human issues.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y250 Tropical Ecology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course examines biology, ecology, and conservation of flora and fauna of tropical ecosystems.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129
Co-requisite: BIOL Z251
This course replaces BIOL A118

BIOL Y251 Tropical Ecology Fieldtrip, 1 cr.

This laboratory is a required study-abroad field-trip to a country such as Belize, Ecuador, or Panama to experience first-hand the unique natural history and unparalleled biodiversity of tropical ecosystems.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129
Corequisite: BIOL Y250

BIOL Y260 Human Biology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course provides an overview of structure and function of the human body with special emphasis on understanding how the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems work together to maintain homeostasis and the interrelatedness of health, wellness, and the environment.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y262 Human Sociobiology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course examines the evolutionary basis of human social behavior.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

BIOL Y264 Global Ecology, 3 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: Natural Science in Context

This course examines the basic concepts of ecology, including the nature of ecosystems, energy flow, biogeochemical cycles, and characteristics of populations and communities of organisms. The role of humans in the ecosphere is emphasized, with particular attention to human population problems, food production, and pollution problems.

Prerequisite: SCIE T129

SCIE T129 Investigating Nature, 3 crs.

Foundation Courses: Investigating Nature

This team-taught interdisciplinary course examines how scientists learn about the natural world through the process of scientific discovery. Students learn critical thinking skills in which scientists regularly engage, and demonstrate this through classroom exercises and assignments. Students learn how methods such as mathematical modeling, observation, and field and laboratory experimentation are used to discover new information about a specific scientific topic. Topics covered by the professors may or may not be thematically linked.

This course replaces BIOL T122, CHEM T122, PHYS T122